Block Index


Each data-moat has the ability to choose its own system of block index management. A block index is simply a way of chronologically organizing and storing a data-moat's blocks. These can be stored in really any conceivable way: a centralized, privately managed database, a publicly accessible smart contract, or even another Kwil DB!

Current Implementations

Arweave Gateway

The simplest method of block indexing is using regular Arweave Gateways. Since each block bundle is its own Arweave Transaction, nodes can make a simple GraphQL query to find new blocks submitted for their data moat. This method of block indexing requires virtually zero setup, maintenance, and overhead.


  • Can quickly identify un-synced bundles.
  • Is highly customizable, allowing for the usage of custom Arweave tags to create complex logic for bundling (ex: Kwil DB sharding).
  • Incurs no additional costs / effort to setup, maintain, and use.


  • Is somewhat difficult to remove verified node operators while keeping their data in the block index.

EVM Smart Contract

Storing a block index in an EVM Smart Contract allows for more dynamic data-moat management. Management and data-write permissions can be managed through NFT / Token-Ownership, or through a simple white-list system.


  • Advanced write permissions allow for data-moats to create custom syncing functionality and incentives.
  • Dynamic management makes adding / removing verified node operators very easy.
  • DAO's can vote to retroactively un-index blocks if content is submitted maliciously.


  • Incurs additional deployment and recurring use costs.
  • Adds an additional attack vector for malicious actors.
  • Can be prone to more bugs (depending on the blockchain).

Future Implementations

The Graph Protocol

Creating a data-moat specific subgraph on the Graph Protocol would be very easy to implement. Such a subgraph could contain functionality for data sharding, as well as increased bundle scalability.
A Graph Protocol implementation could also provide the framework for moat cross-pollination, allowing for moats to selectively interact and query other moats.